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The glossary database lists definitions for different terms used in Indian Classical Music.

Aaghaat Striking of a note/bol.
Aakar Term used to denote singing using the vowel sound "aa"
Aaroha The systematic ascent of raag notes. One of the four 'Varna' i.e. movements of notes, literary meaning 'going up'.
Abhog The fourth and concluding section of composition, seen more typically in Dhrupad Bandish.
Achal Swar Fixed or unchangeable notes. In Indian music, Shadja (Sa) and Pancham (P), i.e. first and fifth notes are so.
Alaap A slow, methodical progression of notes in the raag.
Alankaar Specific melodic presentation in succession in which a pattern is followed.
Alpatva A transitional note in a Raga, a note that is just used in passing and not dwelt on.
Amsha This means the key-note.
Anahata A sound that is not struck; Cosmic sound that is self-emanating, spontaneous, and infinite. It is said in ancient Indian texts that no one else than Yogi can listen Anahata Dhvani with their Yogic power.
Andolan Swinging of a note.
Anibaddha The music that is improvised, spontaneous. Extemporaneous or Ad-lib music.
Anudatta The note used in Sama Gayan (chanting of hymns from Samaved) which is lower than Swarita note.
Anupallavi Term used in South Indian Classical music. The equivalent of a Antara or the second section section in a composition.
Anuvaadi The notes of a raga other than Vaadi & Samvaadi; that are neither emphasized nor downplayed.
Audav or Odav Raga Pentatonic Ragas, i.e. Ragas using only five notes.
Avaroha The systematic decent of Raag notes. It is one of the four movements of notes, meaning 'coming down'.
Avartan A complete cycle, typically of a Taal, also refers to a cycle of rhythmic progression in a song.
Baamayna Bandish A bandish in which the syllables of a bandish are same as the notation of the bandish. For eg. Suraso Rang, the notation is S R S R G.
Bandish A composition in Raga music. This term is broadly used for any type of composition in Hindustani Art Music - even rhythmic compositions are refereed as 'Bandish'.
Bhajan A Hindu devotional song, usually sung in light style, mostly in Bhajani Theka.
Bhava A Sanskrit word used to denote the mental change brought about by the perception of a sentiment or emotion.
Bol Words or syllables implied in Taal. This term also means syllables of instruments - it may be percussion, string or wind instruments or the syllables in a song.
Bol Alaap Alaap done with a playful use of the words in a Bandish, with weaving them in rhythmic cross patterning.
Bol Taan An taan done with the help of the words of a bandish.
Carnatic or Karnatak Sang The system of Art music practiced in south India.
Chal Swar The notes that are sharpened or flattened. 'Chal' literary means variable.
Chalan This word has root "chalanaa" i.e. walking or moving, so, it means specific phrasing in a Raag which defines the movement or speed of singing the particular Raag. Usually Chalan of PoorvangaPradhan Raag is slower than that of UttarangaPradhan Raag.
Charanam Term used in South Indian Classical music. The third or the concluding section in a composition.
Chaturang A composition consisting of Tarana, Bandish, Sargam, Pakhavaj/Tabla bols.
Dadra A rhythmic cycle of six beats. This term also suggests 'a form in Hindustani music, commonly performed in lighter ragas such as Khamaj, Mand, Pilu, Pahadi, etc'.
Desi or Deshi A regional form of music, also refers to 'Popular music'.
Dhaivata Full name of the sixth musical note (Dha)
Dhamar A Tala of 14 beats. Also a form of singing in Hindustani music.
Dhun A lighter song based on folk or popular music. Usually in Raags such as Pahadi, Piloo, Khamaj, Bhairavi, etc.
Dhwani Sanskrit word for sound
Drut Fast in tempo
Gamak Its a way of ornamenting notes. There are fifteen types of Gamaks.
Gandhar Full name of the third musical note (Ga)
Gayaki style of singing
Ghazal A form of poetry, basically in Urdu language; also form of song in light genre.
Graha The core meaning of the word Graha is to take or grapple or join with.
Graha in Taal Graha means commencing of a song or rhythmic design on a particular beat.
Guru teacher or master. In Taal Shashtra (the theory of Rhythm), this term means a rhythmic unit with value of one whole beat.
Hindustani Sangeet The Art music prevalent in north India.
Hori A form of Hindustani music sung during Holi (festival of colors) describing the colorfulness during this festivals & love-pranks of Radha and Krishna.
Jasarangi Jugalbandi A type of Jugalbandi (duet singing) between a male and a female vocalist, who sing 2 different Ragas in 2 different pitch levels at the same time, using the principle of Moorchhana, named after Pt. Jasraj being inventor of this Jugalbandi.
Jhaala The final movement and the fast-paced climax in Hindustani Instrumental Raga presentation.
Jhoola A popular folk song of Uttar Pradesh describing swings
Jod Raag Jod Raag is a raag with two or more raags mixed together. Jod literally means Joint. According to some musicologists, this term also means 'a pair of Ragas with same notes, but different structure'.
Jugalbandi A duet performance of vocal or instrumental music
Kaida or Kayda A well defined, structured and expandable composition replete with syllables and phrases of Tabla.
Kajri A song depicting black clouds in rainy season & a longing Nayika, usually in Dhun-Ragas such as Piloo, Gara, Pahadi. A genre of music from Uttar Pradesh, sung during rains. Kajri literary means darkness.
Kampan Shaking of a note.
Kan A micro note.
Khaali Opposite of a taali (Clap) shown by a gesture of clapping with one hand turned upside down.
Khatkaa Two or more notes sung with a jerk.
Khayal The thoughtful process of exposing a raag.
Kism Variations of theka without changing the taal structure
Komal A lower frequency note.
Komal The flat form of a note or swar.
Kriti The equivalent of a Bandish. The format of a musical composition that characterizes the Carnatic form of music.
Lakshan Geet A bandish (composition) that explains the structure of a raag.
Lay Speed of a composition
Madhya Medium in tempo
Madhya Saptak middle octave
Madhyama Full name of the fourth musical note (Ma)
Mandra The lower scale notes of Saptak, written with dots underneath them
Mangalam Term used in South Indian music for the concluding song of a performance.
Meend Stretching or lenthening the sound from one note to another.
Mela A scale. This is basically a way of classifying Ragas. The Ragas in Carnatic music are classified in 72 scales.
Mishra Raag Combination of two or more Raags.
Mukhda Literally meaning face, means the first line of a bandish or a taal composition
Murki Short taan of three to four notes sung very fast.
Naad A musical sound
Nama Sankeertanam Devotional music involving the repeated recital of God's name.
Nibaddha Planned, articulate, precomposed music. The music having lesser possibility of improvisation.
Nishada Full name of the seventh musical note, Ni
Nyaas This Sanskrit word means to sit or to stabilize
Pakad A special feature (note combination) that distinguishes the raag.
Pallavi Term used in South Indian Classical music. The equivalent of a Sthayi (asthayi) or the first section in a composition.
Pancham Full name of the fifth musical note (Pa)
Pandit a knowledgeable person. In music, this term is used for scholar musicians.
Paramela Praveshak Raga Raga that suggests a change in Mela or Thaat, i.e. scale in notes either Poorvanga or Uttaranga.
Poorvang The lower region of an octave, from S to M.
Prahar Time of the day (usually a three hour period in which a raag is performed)
Qawwali A form of Muslim (Sufi) devotional song.
Raagmaala A bandish or a composition set to many different raags one after the other.
Raagsagar A raagmala in which the raag used are disclosed within the words of the bandish.
Ragini Term used to denote the 'female' counterpart of a raga.
Rishabha Full name of the second musical note (Re)
Riyaz Practice
Saadra A composition set to slow to medium Jhaptaal.
Samay Refers to the role of Time in the rendering of ragas. In Hindustani Art music tradition it is specified that ragas should be performed in particular time of the day.
Sampoorna Raag Ragas that comprise all the seven notes.
Samvaadi The second most important note of a raga
Sanchaari The third section of a musical composition that comprises all the regions of the octave, seen more typically in Dhrupad Bandish. This also refers to one of the 'Varna', i.e. movements of notes, meaning 'travelling here and there'.
Saptak A group of seven successive notes. Usually translated as 'octave' as in western music.
Sargam Geet A composition (bandish) with just notes in it. This type of composition doesnt use any words just the notes of a specific raag to which it is set.
Shadav Raga Ragas using six notes.
Shadja Full name of the first musical note (Sa). This works as the base-note in Indian music. This note is firm and irreplaceable.
Shishya student who is learning from his master(Guru).
Shruti A micro variation that a note allowed to take.
Shuddha Swar The natural notes of Saptak of Bilawal Thaat.
Sthaayi Also known as Astai, this is the first and fundamental section of a musical composition and is repeated during the entire improvisation. This term also means rest on a note - one of the four 'Varna', i.e. ways of moving of notes.
Sur A note. Usually one of the 12 notes outlined in North Indian Classical Music.
Swar A note. Usually one of the 12 notes outlined in North Indian Classical Music. This term also refers to the lingual vowel.
Taal A rhythm cycle.
Taar Saptak higher octave. It is also colloquially called as 'Teep'.
Tappa A form of Hindustani music featuring rapid and abrupt jumps from note to note.
Tarana A composition consisting of just syllables instead of words.
Teep Colloquial term for 'higher octave Shadja'. This means higher octave, also suggests the highest frequency in the performance.
Teevra A note that is been sharpened. In Indian music, only forth note, i.e. madhyam is Teevra.
Thaat Synonym of Mela. One of the categories a Raag can be classified based on the presence of specific notes.
Theka Theka is the expressive way of playing Taal on percussion instruments. It has a significance of being first Bandish or composition of a Taal. Theka gives the basic time unit to the rendition of a song.
Tihaai A structured set of notes or bols which repeats three times at usually the same interval and ends on the sum
Tillana The equivalent of the Tarana in South Indian classical music.
Trivat or Tirvat A composition consisting of any three of the following Pakhavaj/Tabla Bol-s, Sargam, Bandish, Tarana.
Ustad A highly respected teacher or master.
Uttarang The upper tetra-chord of an octave, which comprises the notes P to S'.
Vaadi The most important note in a Raag.
Varjit or Varjya The note that is excluded from the Aroha or Avaroha of a Raag.
Varna the four ways of moving notes or treatment to notes, namely 'Sthayi' (resting on a note). Arohi (ascend), Avarohi (descend) and Sanchari (moving around).
Vikrit Swar The notes that are either sharpened or flattened from there original place.
Vilambit Slow in tempo
Vistar The melodic elaboration of a raga, tala or pada.
Vivaadi The notes that are either skipped in a raga or are used very rarely.